All about Python


CTF | Reverse Engineering | Tools

angr is a python framework for analyzing binaries. It combines both static and dynamic symbolic ("concolic") analysis, making it applicable to a variety of tasks.

Forbidden Fruit: Patch built-in Python objects

Python supports duck-typing, but it will not work on built-in types. forbiddenfruit allows to add or overwrite functions of built-in types such as int or str.

pdoc: API Documentation for Python Projects


pdoc is a Python API documentation generation, which turns doc-strings and type annotations into a simple and elegant documentation.

pdoc auto-generates API documentation that follows your project's Python module hierarchy. It requires no configuration, has first-class support for type annotations, cross-links between identifiers, comes with an integrated live-reloading web server, uses customizable HTML templates, understands numpydoc and Google-style docstrings, and is permissively licensed.

Post-Mortem Python Plotting


The extract function copies the local variables from the current function frame into the existing Jupyter session. If the Python code crashes, you can enter the debugger with the %debug magic and then use the extract function to copy the variables from the function frame into the Jupyter session. The variables can now be properly inspected, e.g., plotted.

The original URI above contains more details how to use this post-mortem debugging.

def extract(source=None):
    """Copies the variables of the caller up to iPython. Useful for debugging.

    .. code-block:: python

        def f():
            x = 'hello world'

        f() # raises an error

        print(x) # prints 'hello world'

    import inspect
    import ctypes 

    if source is None:
        frames = inspect.stack()
        caller = frames[1].frame
        name, ls, gs = caller.f_code.co_name, caller.f_locals, caller.f_globals
    elif hasattr(source, '__func__'):
        func = source.__func__
        name, ls, gs = func.__qualname__, (func.__closure__ or {}), func.__globals__
    elif hasattr(source, '__init__'):
        func = source.__init__.__func__
        name, ls, gs = func.__qualname__, (func.__closure__ or {}), func.__globals__
        raise ValueError(f'Don\'t support source {source}')

    ipython = [f for f in inspect.stack() if f.filename.startswith('<ipython-input')][-1].frame

    ipython.f_locals.update({k: v for k, v in gs.items() if k[:2] != '__'})
    ipython.f_locals.update({k: v for k, v in ls.items() if k[:2] != '__'})

    # Magic call to make the updates to f_locals 'stick'.
    # More info:
    ctypes.pythonapi.PyFrame_LocalsToFast(ctypes.py_object(ipython), ctypes.c_int(0))

    message = 'Copied {}\'s variables to {}'.format(name, ipython.f_code.co_name)
    raise RuntimeError(message)

Programming Playgrounds

Rust | Tools

Python Cheat Sheets


Python Format String Syntax

Cheatsheet | Tutorials

Format string overview for the old and new format string syntax in Python. It shows for each thing you might want to perform, the old syntax (if existing), the new syntax and the output.

Real Python


Contains a comprehesive list of tutorials, ranging from beginner to advanced. Moreover, it contains community interviews with well-known Python users, a list of Python books and quizzes.

The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Python!


A practical, continuously updated, handbook which provides insight into how to use Python, both as a beginner and as an expert.